Tuberculosis is preventable, treatable, and curable, yet it has the highest mortality rate of infectious diseases worldwide. Over the past decade, services to prevent, screen, diagnose, and treat tuberculosis have been developed and scaled up globally, but progress to end the disease as a public health threat has been slow, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. In these settings, low-quality tuberculosis prevention, diagnostic, and treatment services frustrate efforts to translate use of existing tools, approaches, and treatment regimens into improved individual and public health outcomes. Increasingly sophisticated methods have been used to identify gaps in quality of tuberculosis care, but inadequate work has been done to apply these findings to activities that generate population-level improvements. In this Personal View, we contend that shifting the focus from the "what" to the "how" of quality improvement will require National Tuberculosis Programmes to change the way they organise, use data, implement, and respond to the needs and preferences of people with tuberculosis and at-risk communities.
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