Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor-Expressing Cells in the Hypothalamus Regulate Food Intake

Cell Metab. 2019 Nov 5;30(5):987-996.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.07.013. Epub 2019 Aug 22.


Ambiguity regarding the role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in obesity arises from conflicting reports asserting that both GIP receptor (GIPR) agonism and antagonism are effective strategies for inhibiting weight gain. To enable identification and manipulation of Gipr-expressing (Gipr) cells, we created Gipr-Cre knockin mice. As GIPR-agonists have recently been reported to suppress food intake, we aimed to identify central mediators of this effect. Gipr cells were identified in the arcuate, dorsomedial, and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, as confirmed by RNAscope in mouse and human. Single-cell RNA-seq identified clusters of hypothalamic Gipr cells exhibiting transcriptomic signatures for vascular, glial, and neuronal cells, the latter expressing somatostatin but little pro-opiomelanocortin or agouti-related peptide. Activation of Gq-DREADDs in hypothalamic Gipr cells suppressed food intake in vivo, which was not obviously additive with concomitant GLP1R activation. These data identify hypothalamic GIPR as a target for the regulation of energy balance.

Keywords: food intake; glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide; glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor; hypothalamus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Animals
  • Eating / drug effects
  • Eating / physiology*
  • Female
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / metabolism
  • Gene Knock-In Techniques
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / metabolism
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor / agonists
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypothalamus / cytology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Obesity / drug therapy
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / agonists
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / genetics
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / metabolism*


  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor