Do all the linear accelerators comply with the ICRU 91's constraints for stereotactic body radiation therapy treatments?

Cancer Radiother. 2019 Oct;23(6-7):625-629. doi: 10.1016/j.canrad.2019.07.137. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Abstract

Recent technological developments in linear accelerators (linacs) and their imaging systems have made it possible to routinely perform stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments. To ensure the security and quality of the treatments, national and international recommendations have been written. This review focuses on the recommendations of the report 91 of the International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU) on stereotactic treatments with small photon beams and proposes to answer the question of the eligibility of the commercially available accelerators for the treatment of extra-cranial SRT (SBRT). The ICRU 91 report outlines important features needed to respect the constraints, which are high intensity photon beam, integrated image-guidance, high mechanical accuracy of the linac, multileaf collimator with reduced leaf width, bundled motion management and bundled 6 Dimensional "robotic" couch tabletop. Most of the contemporary linacs meet these recommendations, in particular, stereotactic dedicated linacs, or modern gantry-based linacs equipped with 3 dimensional cone-beam CT imaging and 2D-stereoscopic planar imaging. Commercially available ring-based linacs have some limitations: they offer only coplanar treatments, and couch movements are limited to translations and, some have limited imaging equipment and no ability to manage intrafraction motion. However, for performing SBRT, non-coplanar irradiations are not mandatory, contrarily to intracranial stereotactic irradiations. Furthermore, patients' rotations can be corrected, thanks to real-time adaptive radiotherapy available on MRI-linacs. Finally, significant improvements are expected in the short term to compensate the weaknesses of the current devices.

Keywords: ICRU 91; SBRT.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Equipment Design / standards
  • Guideline Adherence*
  • Humans
  • Immobilization / instrumentation
  • International Agencies / standards*
  • Neoplasms / radiotherapy*
  • Particle Accelerators / standards*
  • Photons / therapeutic use
  • Quality Assurance, Health Care
  • Radiosurgery / instrumentation*
  • Radiosurgery / methods
  • Radiosurgery / standards
  • Radiotherapy, Image-Guided / standards