Background: Islet autoantibodies (IAbs) are the most reliable biomarkers to assess risk of progression to clinical type 1 diabetes (T1D). There are four major biochemically defined IAbs currently used in clinical trials that are equally important for disease prediction. The current screening methods use a radio-binding assay (RBA) for single IAb measurement, which are laborious and inefficient for large-scale screening. More importantly, up to 40% of patients with T1D have other autoimmune conditions that can be identified through relevant autoantibody testing. Thus, there is a need to screen for T1D and other autoimmune diseases simultaneously.
Methods: Based on our well-established electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay platform, we developed a multiplexed ECL assay that combines 7 individual autoantibody assays together in one single well to simultaneously screen T1D, and three other autoimmune diseases including celiac disease, autoimmune thyroid disease and autoimmune poly-glandular syndrome-1 (APS-1). The 7-Plex ECL assay was extensively validated against single antibody measurements including a standard RBA and single ECL assay.
Findings: The 7-Plex ECL assay was well correlated to each single ECL autoantibody assay and each RBA.
Interpretation: The multiplexed ECL assay provides high sensitivity and disease specificity, along with high throughput and a low cost for large-scale screenings of T1D and other relevant autoimmune diseases in the general population. FUND: JDRF grants 2-SRA-2015-51-Q-R, 2-SRA-2018-533-S-B, NIH grants DK32083 and DK32493. NSFC grants 81770777.
Keywords: Autoantibodies; Autoimmune diseases; Biomarker; Diabetes; Multiplex assay.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.