Molecular identification, in vivo and in vitro activities of Calvatia gigantea (macro-fungus) as an antidiabetic agent

Mycology. 2019 Mar 31;10(3):166-173. doi: 10.1080/21501203.2019.1595204. eCollection 2019.


Mushrooms are cherished as sources of food, nutrients and medicine. Inadequate data on the identity and medicinal properties of many wild Nigerian mushrooms has limited their utilization. This work was carried out to identify and authenticate a puffball mushroom using molecular tools and investigate its antidiabetic properties. Taxonomic guides were employed in morphological identifying the mushroom as Lycoperdon umbrinum, methanol extract of fruiting bodies was evaluated for antidiabetic activity using in vitro α-amylase assay and in vivo activity in the alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. The macro fungus was identified using Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) sequence analysis after which sequences generated were compared using the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) at NCBI GenBank. In the acute in vivo test, the 400 mg/kg dose showed the best activity with percentage reduction in blood glucose 29.3%, compared with 5 mg/kg glibenclamide at 15%. The in vitro assay established that the extract possessed potent activity with IC50 of 0.46 µg/mL compared to its DCM, butanol fractions and acarbose (IC50 5.3 µg/mL, 5.6 µg/mL, 45 µg/mL) respectively. BLAST analysis revealed the mushroom (accession number, KRO78278.1) to show 98% identity to Calvatia gigantea. The study established the identity of this mushroom and confirmed its antidiabetic activity.

Keywords: Calvatia gigantea; Diabetes mellitus; MTT; alpha amylase; antidiabetic; antioxidant; cytoxicity.