The effect of apple vinegar consumption on glycemic indices, blood pressure, oxidative stress, and homocysteine in patients with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: A randomized controlled clinical trial

Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2019 Oct;33:132-138. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2019.06.006. Epub 2019 Jul 9.


Background: Some foods and drinks contain special ingredients, causing impressive effects on human health. The aim of the current study was to assess the health effects of apple vinegar in patients with diabetes and dyslipidemia.

Method: Seventy participants with type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned into an intervention and control group in order to assess the effect of 20 ml apple vinegar per day using an 8-week parallel study. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment for b-cell function (HOMA-B), quantitative insulin sensitivity checks index (QUICKI), insulin, malondialdehyde (MDA), 2,20-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), homocysteine, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at the beginning and end of the study.

Results: The intervention with apple vinegar could significantly improve FBS (mean change: -10.16 ± 19.48 mg/dl, p = 0.006) and DPPH (mean change: 16.58 ± 11.56, p < 0.001) within intervention group and in comparison with control group (p < 0.001). Additionally, the significant increase of MDA in control group (p < 0.05) caused a considerable difference between two groups. Glycemic indices containing insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, and QUICKI decrease significantly in both groups (p < 0.05). No considerable effect was observed on blood pressure and homocysteine in intervention group as well as control group.

Conclusion: This trial provided some evidences that apple vinegar consumption may cause beneficial effects on glycemic indices and oxidative stress in individuals with diabetes and dyslipidemia. This randomized clinical trial was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials ( as 2013070710826N5.

Keywords: Apple vinegar; Dyslipidemia; Oxidative stress; Type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Adult
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Blood Glucose
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Dyslipidemias / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Glycemic Index / drug effects*
  • Homeostasis
  • Homocysteine
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Iran
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / blood
  • Malus*
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology*
  • Picrates


  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Picrates
  • Homocysteine
  • Malondialdehyde
  • 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
  • Acetic Acid

Associated data

  • IRCT/IRCT2013070710826N5