A survey of known immune epitopes in the enteroviruses strains associated with acute flaccid myelitis

Hum Immunol. 2019 Nov;80(11):923-929. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2019.08.004. Epub 2019 Aug 23.


Enteroviruses are potentially linked to the emergence of Acute Flaccid Myelitis (AFM), a rare but very serious condition that affects the nervous system. AFM has been associated with coxsackievirus A16, enterovirus A71 (EVA71) and enterovirus D68 (EVD68). Little is known about host-pathogen interactions for these viruses, and whether immune responses may have a protective or immunopathological role in disease presentations. Towards addressing this issue, we used the Immune Epitope Database to assess the known inventory of B and T cell epitopes from enteroviruses, focusing on data related to human hosts. The extent of conservation in areas that are targets of B and T cell immune responses were examined. This analysis sheds light on regions of the enterovirus polypeptide that can be probed to induce a specific or cross-reactive B or T cell the immune response to enteroviruses, with a particular focus on coxsackievirus A16, EVA71 and EVD68. In addition, these analyses reveal the current gap-of-knowledge in the T and B cell immune responses that future studies should aim to address.

Keywords: AFM; B cells; Enteroviruses; Epitopes; T cells.

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Viral / genetics*
  • Antigens, Viral / immunology
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Central Nervous System Viral Diseases / immunology*
  • Computational Biology
  • Coxsackievirus Infections / immunology*
  • Cross Reactions
  • Enterovirus A, Human / physiology*
  • Enterovirus D, Human / physiology*
  • Epitope Mapping
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular
  • Immunodominant Epitopes / genetics*
  • Immunodominant Epitopes / immunology
  • Myelitis / immunology*
  • Neuromuscular Diseases / immunology*
  • Receptors, Antigen / metabolism
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA
  • Species Specificity
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*


  • Antigens, Viral
  • Immunodominant Epitopes
  • Receptors, Antigen

Supplementary concepts

  • acute flaccid myelitis