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Review
. 2019 Oct;96(1):2-7.
doi: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2019.08.006. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Interleukin-33 in Atopic Dermatitis

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Review

Interleukin-33 in Atopic Dermatitis

Yasutomo Imai. J Dermatol Sci. .

Abstract

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by pruritus, barrier disruption, and inflammationincluding type 2 cytokine production. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an inflammatory cytokine that is over-expressed in the keratinocytes of patients with AD. IL-33 transgenic mice, which express IL-33 specifically in keratinocytes, spontaneously develop AD-like eczema, suggesting that IL-33 is sufficient for the development of AD. IL-33 stimulates various cells, including group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), to produce type 2 cytokines, such as IL-5 and IL-13, and IL-33-stimulated basophils activate ILC2s via IL-4. ILC2s are enriched in human AD skin lesions, and ILC2 isolated from AD lesions, are activated by IL-33, not by thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). IL-33 induces IL-31, thereby promoting pruritus and scratching behavior. Conversely, scratching the skin promotes IL-33 release from keratinocytes. IL-33 reduces the expression of filaggrin and claudin-1; it also reduces the skin barrier function. However, barrier destruction causes percutaneous exposure to allergens or IL-33 release. Thus, IL-33 is a common point of entry into the itch-scratch cycle of AD. These new findings can facilitate the development of novel therapeutic drugs targeting IL-33.

Keywords: Atopic dermatitis; Basophils; Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s); IL-33; IL-4.

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