Obinutuzumab plus fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in previously untreated, fit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a subgroup analysis of the GREEN study

Leukemia. 2020 Feb;34(2):441-450. doi: 10.1038/s41375-019-0554-1. Epub 2019 Aug 27.


GREEN (NCT01905943) is a nonrandomized, open-label, single-arm, phase 3b study investigating the safety and efficacy of obinutuzumab alone or in combination with chemotherapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We report the preplanned subgroup analysis of 140 previously untreated, fit CLL patients who received obinutuzumab plus fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (G-FC). The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability. Efficacy was the secondary endpoint. Obinutuzumab 1000 mg was administered intravenously on Day (D)1 (dose split D1‒2), D8 and D15 of Cycle (C)1, and D1 of C2-6 (28-day cycles). Standard intravenous/oral doses of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide were administered on D1-3 of C1-6. Overall, 87.1% of patients experienced grade ≥ 3 adverse events (AEs), including neutropenia (67.1%) and thrombocytopenia (17.1%). Serious AEs were experienced by 42.1% of patients. Rates of grade ≥ 3 infusion-related reactions and infections were 19.3% and 15.7%, respectively. Overall response rate was observed in 90.0%, with 46.4% of patients achieving complete response (CR; including CR with incomplete marrow recovery). Minimal residual disease negativity rates were 64.3% in peripheral blood and 35.7% in bone marrow (intent-to-treat analysis). After a median observation time of 25.6 months, 2 year progression-free survival was 91%. Frontline G-FC represents a promising treatment option for fit patients with CLL.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized / administration & dosage
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Progression-Free Survival
  • Remission Induction / methods
  • Vidarabine / administration & dosage
  • Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Vidarabine
  • obinutuzumab
  • fludarabine

Associated data