Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) require specific perioperative care, and clinical practice in this area remains poorly defined. We aimed to conduct a systematic, PRISMA-based review of the literature, available clinical guidelines and practice recommendations. We also aimed to extract any valuable information for the "best of available-evidence"-based prevention of perioperative adverse events in children with SCD, and highlight the most urgent priorities in clinical research. As data sources, US National Library of Medicine, Medline, National Guideline Clearinghouse, International Guideline Network, TRIP databases were searched for any content until January 2019. We also included institutional, consortia and expert group guidelines. Included were reports/guidelines in English, French, German, and Italian. Excluded were reports on obstetrical and fetal management. We identified 202 reports/guidelines fulfilling the criteria outlined above. A majority focused on visceral, cardiovascular and orthopedic surgery procedures, and only five were multicenter randomized controlled trials and two prospective randomized studies. After grading of the quality of the evidence, the extracted data was summarized into clinical recommendations for daily practice. Additionally, we designed a risk-grading algorithm to identify contexts likely to be associated with adverse outcomes. In conclusion, we provide a systematic PRISMA-based review of the existing literature and ancillary practice and delineate a set of clinical recommendations and priorities for research.
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