Titers of antibodies to filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in acute and convalescent phase serum samples from 158 patients with clinical symptoms typical of whooping-cough. In 96 of the patients the diagnosis was verified by culture. Significant changes in serum levels of IgG, IgM and/or IgA antibodies against FHA were demonstrated in 126 patients (80%). Thus, demonstration of significant changes in FHA antibody titers in serum can be used for serological diagnosis of pertussis. The results also show that high levels of IgG, IgM and/or IgA antibodies in a single serum sample suggest current pertussis infection, but if the diagnosis is based on determinations of FHA antibody titers in a single serum sample the sensitivity is low. The levels of antibody to FHA were compared with previously determined levels of antibodies to pertussis toxin. A significant antibody response against both FHA and pertussis toxin was seen in 111 patients (70%) while 147 patients (93%) developed a significant increase in antibodies against one or both antigens.