Exogenous surfactant replacement is the most effective evidence-based therapy for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. The mode of administration has evolved in the last decade towards less invasive techniques that aim to effectively provide an adequate dose of surfactant, while allowing spontaneous respiration to continue, and with the support of continuous positive airway pressure. Surfactant delivery via aerosolisation, pharyngeal instillation, and laryngeal mask are being actively pursued in research, but have not yet been adopted to any significant degree in clinical practice. Surfactant administration via thin catheter, on the other hand, is becoming more widely used in neonatal intensive care units worldwide and is now an acknowledged alternative to the standard mode of surfactant delivery. Different devices, including nasogastric tubes, vascular catheters, and purpose-built surfactant instillation catheters are used. We present here a contemporary review of surfactant administration via thin catheter, in a practical guide format that reflects the individual and collective scientific opinions of the clinicians who participated in formulating the guide.
Keywords: Less invasive surfactant administration; Prematurity; Respiratory distress syndrome; Thin catheter.
© 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel.