Laryngo-tracheal stenosis in a woman with ablepharon macrostomia syndrome

BMC Pulm Med. 2019 Aug 28;19(1):163. doi: 10.1186/s12890-019-0921-8.


Background: Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome (AMS) is a rare congenital malformation disorder caused by the autosomal-dominant mutations in gene TWIST2. Patients affected by the disease present abnormalities in ectoderm-derived structures mainly consisting in major facial dysmorphic features and rarely in visceral anomalies. The only laryngo-tracheal defect reported is malacia, with no reference to any anatomical stenosis. We describe a unique case of laryngo-tracheal stenosis in a woman, with genetically confirmed AMS currently followed at our Department.

Case presentation: A 37-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the intensive care unit for acute dyspnea that required orotracheal intubation followed by tracheostomy. The bronchoscopy revealed abnormal tracheal tissue at the level of the cricoid and the first three tracheal rings reducing airway caliber by 80% (grade III according to the Cotton-Meyer classification). Treatment of the stenosis by means of temporary tracheostomy and corticosteroids therapy resulted in airway patency restoration and patient's return to her normal activities. Bronchoscopy at four and five months showed disappearance of the abnormal tissue and a residual anatomical laryngo-tracheal stenosis of about 20% (grade I according to the Cotton-Meyer classification) of the normal airway caliber.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first patient affected by AMS presenting with laryngo-tracheal stenosis.

Keywords: Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome; Dyspnea; Laryngo-tracheal stenosis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnosis*
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / physiopathology*
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Adult
  • Dyspnea / etiology
  • Eye Abnormalities / diagnosis*
  • Eye Abnormalities / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intubation, Intratracheal
  • Macrostomia / diagnosis*
  • Macrostomia / physiopathology*
  • Mutation
  • Trachea / surgery*
  • Tracheal Stenosis / etiology
  • Tracheal Stenosis / therapy*
  • Tracheostomy


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones

Supplementary concepts

  • Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome