Association of blood eosinophilia and vitamin D insufficiency in young infants with cow milk allergy

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2019;28(3):550-557. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.201909_28(3).0014.


Background and objectives: Cow milk allergy is the most common food allergic disease in young infants and vitamin D has a critical role in regulating intestinal inflammation.

Methods and study design: To determine roles of vitamin D in cow milk allergy, fifty-six young infants with cow milk allergy were enrolled. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), total and specific IgE, circulating regulatory T lymphocytes, and blood eosino-phil counts were determined.

Results: The serum 25OHD in cow milk allergy and age-matched infants were sim-ilar (68.3±38.9 nmol/L versus 72.9±33.1 nmol/L, p>0.05), 71% Cow milk allergy infants (40/56) had serum 25OHD lower than 75 nmol/L compared to 66% (37/56) in the controls. The cow milk allergy infants with 25OHD lower than 75 nmol/L had persistent blood eosinophilia and delayed resolution of symptoms after cow milk elimination compared to those with 25OHD above 75 nmol/L (odd ratio 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.6, p<0.05). The serum 25OHD inversely correlated with blood eosinophil counts after cow milk elimination (r=-0.37, p<0.01). Cow milk allergy infants with 25OHD lower than 50 nmol/L (vitamin D deficiency, n = 22) were in general at younger age (1.6±0.6 months) compared to infants with insufficient (50-75 nmol/L) or normal (>=75 nmol/L) group (4.3±1.2 and 4.6±0.9 months, respectively, p<0.001).

Conclusions: Low serum vitamin D associates with persistent blood eosinophilia and symptoms in young cow milk allergy infants.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
  • Cattle
  • Eosinophilia / blood*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Milk Hypersensitivity*
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood*


  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D