The mutation of Transportin 3 gene that causes limb girdle muscular dystrophy 1F induces protection against HIV-1 infection

PLoS Pathog. 2019 Aug 29;15(8):e1007958. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007958. eCollection 2019 Aug.


The causative mutation responsible for limb girdle muscular dystrophy 1F (LGMD1F) is one heterozygous single nucleotide deletion in the stop codon of the nuclear import factor Transportin 3 gene (TNPO3). This mutation causes a carboxy-terminal extension of 15 amino acids, producing a protein of unknown function (TNPO3_mut) that is co-expressed with wild-type TNPO3 (TNPO3_wt). TNPO3 has been involved in the nuclear transport of serine/arginine-rich proteins such as splicing factors and also in HIV-1 infection through interaction with the viral integrase and capsid. We analyzed the effect of TNPO3_mut on HIV-1 infection using PBMCs from patients with LGMD1F infected ex vivo. HIV-1 infection was drastically impaired in these cells and viral integration was reduced 16-fold. No significant effects on viral reverse transcription and episomal 2-LTR circles were observed suggesting that the integration of HIV-1 genome was restricted. This is the second genetic defect described after CCR5Δ32 that shows strong resistance against HIV-1 infection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / genetics
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV-1 / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle / genetics
  • Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle / pathology*
  • Mutation*
  • Pedigree
  • Virus Replication / genetics*
  • Young Adult
  • beta Karyopherins / genetics*


  • TNPO3 protein, human
  • beta Karyopherins

Grant support

This work was supported by crowfunding site PRECIPITA from FECYT, the MERCKSALUD Foundation, the Spanish Ministry of Science (FIS PI12/00969; PI16CIII/00034; SAF2016-78480-R); the Spanish AIDS Research Network RD16CIII/0002/0001 that is included in Acción Estratégica en Salud, Plan Nacional de Investigación Científica, Desarrollo e Innovación Tecnológica 2016-2020, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, European Region Development Fund (FEDER); CIBERer-ISCIII (FIS PI16/00316) co-financed by the European Regional Development Founds (FEDER), IIS La Fe (2016-0388; 2018-0200), and Fundación Isabel Gemio ( The work of Dra. Sara Rodríguez-Mora is supported by the Asociación Conquistando Escalones, funded by Spanish LGMD1F patients and Sara Borrell grant from Instituto de Salud Carlos III. The work of Dra. María Rosa López-Huertas is financed by ISCIII-Subdirección General de Evaluación and European Funding for Regional Development (FEDER) and by Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (PIE13/00040). The work of Elena Mateos is supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness SAF2016-78480-R. The work of Lorena Vigón is supported by a pre-doctoral grant from Instituto de Salud Carlos III. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.