Artificial Neural Network Approach for Modelling of Mercury Ions Removal from Water Using Functionalized CNTs with Deep Eutectic Solvent

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Aug 28;20(17):4206. doi: 10.3390/ijms20174206.


Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with a deep eutectic solvent (DES) were utilized to remove mercury ions from water. An artificial neural network (ANN) technique was used for modelling the functionalized CNTs adsorption capacity. The amount of adsorbent dosage, contact time, mercury ions concentration and pH were varied, and the effect of parameters on the functionalized CNT adsorption capacity is observed. The (NARX) network, (FFNN) network and layer recurrent (LR) neural network were used. The model performance was compared using different indicators, including the root mean square error (RMSE), relative root mean square error (RRMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean square error (MSE), correlation coefficient (R2) and relative error (RE). Three kinetic models were applied to the experimental and predicted data; the pseudo second-order model was the best at describing the data. The maximum RE, R2 and MSE were 9.79%, 0.9701 and 1.15 × 10-3, respectively, for the NARX model; 15.02%, 0.9304 and 2.2 × 10-3 for the LR model; and 16.4%, 0.9313 and 2.27 × 10-3 for the FFNN model. The NARX model accurately predicted the adsorption capacity with better performance than the FFNN and LR models.

Keywords: adsorption; artificial neural network; carbon nanotubes; deep eutectic solvents; environmental modelling; mercury ions removal.

MeSH terms

  • Adsorption
  • Mercury / chemistry*
  • Nanotubes, Carbon / chemistry*
  • Neural Networks, Computer*
  • Solvents / chemistry
  • Water Purification / methods*


  • Nanotubes, Carbon
  • Solvents
  • Mercury