Background: Although neoangiogenesis is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory arthritis and many cancers, therapeutic agents targeting the vasculature remain elusive. Here we identified miR-125a as an important regulator of angiogenesis.
Methods: MiRNA levels were quantified in Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) synovial-tissue by RT-PCR and compared to macroscopic synovial vascularity. HMVEC were transfected with anti-miR-125a and angiogenic mechanisms quantified using tube formation assays, transwell invasion chambers, wound repair, RT-PCR and western blot. Real-time analysis of EC metabolism was assessed using the XF-24 Extracellular-Flux Analyzer. Synovial expression of metabolic markers was assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent staining. MiR-125a CRISPR/Cas9-based knock-out zebrafish were generated and vascular development assessed. Finally, glycolytic blockade using 3PO, which inhibits Phosphofructokinase-fructose-2,6-bisphophatase 3 (PFKFB3), was assessed in miR-125a-/- ECs and zebrafish embryos.
Findings: MiR-125a is significantly decreased in PsA synovium and inversely associated with macroscopic vascularity. In-vivo, CRISPR/cas9 miR-125a-/- zebrafish displayed a hyper-branching phenotype. In-vitro, miR-125a inhibition promoted EC tube formation, branching, migration and invasion, effects paralleled by a shift in their metabolic profile towards glycolysis. This metabolic shift was also observed in the PsA synovial vasculature where increased expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), PFKFB3 and Pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2 (PKM2) were demonstrated. Finally, blockade of PFKFB3 significantly inhibited anti-miR-125a-induced angiogenic mechanisms in-vitro, paralleled by normalisation of vascular development of CRISPR/cas9 miR-125a-/- zebrafish embryos.
Intepretation: Our results provide evidence that miR-125a deficiency enhances angiogenic processes through metabolic reprogramming of endothelial cells. FUND: Irish Research Council, Arthritis Ireland, EU Seventh Framework Programme (612218/3D-NET).
Keywords: Angiogenesis; CRISPR/CAS9; Metabolism; Zebrafish; microRNA.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.