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Review
, 14 (3), 77-88

Protein Biomarkers of Neural System

Affiliations
Review

Protein Biomarkers of Neural System

Fatemeh Ghanavatinejad et al. J Otol.

Abstract

The utilization of biomarkers for in vivo and in vitro research is growing rapidly. This is mainly due to the enormous potential of biomarkers in evaluating molecular and cellular abnormalities in cell models and in tissue, and evaluating drug responses and the effectiveness of therapeutic intervention strategies. An important way to analyze the development of the human body is to assess molecular markers in embryonic specialized cells, which include the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Neuronal development is controlled through the gene networks in the neural crest and neural tube, both components of the ectoderm. The neural crest differentiates into several different tissues including, but not limited to, the peripheral nervous system, enteric nervous system, melanocyte, and the dental pulp. The neural tube eventually converts to the central nervous system. This review provides an overview of the differentiation of the ectoderm to a fully functioning nervous system, focusing on molecular biomarkers that emerge at each stage of the cellular specialization from multipotent stem cells to completely differentiated cells. Particularly, the otic placode is the origin of most of the inner ear cell types such as neurons, sensory hair cells, and supporting cells. During the development, different auditory cell types can be distinguished by the expression of the neurogenin differentiation factor1 (Neuro D1), Brn3a, and transcription factor GATA3. However, the mature auditory neurons express other markers including βIII tubulin, the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT1), the tyrosine receptor kinase B and C (Trk B, C), BDNF, neurotrophin 3 (NT3), Calretinin, etc.

Keywords: Biomarker; Differentiation; Nervous system; Neural system; Otic placode; Stem cell.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Zygote develops three germinal layers through gastrulation. Ectodermal derivatives specifically portrayed to provide a schematic overview of divers tissues thrived from Ectoderm layer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Neural crest pluripotency patterns as investigated by in vitro and in vivo analysis.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Compartmentation of ectoderm derived tissues. Representative biomarkers for each tissue are included in parenthesis.

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