Clinical Characteristics and Long-Term Mortality Rate in Female Patients With Takotsubo Syndrome Compared With Female Patients With ST-Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Retrospective Study From a Single Center

Cardiol Res Pract. 2019 Jul 30;2019:9156586. doi: 10.1155/2019/9156586. eCollection 2019.

Abstract

Background: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by acute transient, stress-induced, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, generally presenting with apical ballooning. It can mimic an acute coronary syndrome, but with a milder increase in cardiac enzymes and without culprit coronary artery disease on angiography. Data on long-term follow-up and survival in patients with TTS, compared with patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), are scarce.

Purpose: To assess all-cause mortality rate and survival in a consecutive series of female patients with TTS compared with age- and sex-matched STEMI patients on long-term follow-up.

Methods and results: We collected data of 65 TTS female patients (TTS group) with a mean age of 73.42 ± 11.35 years from 2001 to 2013. Collection of follow-up information was concluded for all patients in 2016. To compare the mortality and survival of TTS patients with those of the STEMI population, we used data from our STEMI Registry, a prospective registry of 7446 STEMI patients admitted from 2001 to 2013 to our cath-lab for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI). From the registry, we selected 104 STEMI patients (STEMI group) comparable to our TTS group in terms of age (mean age of 72.33 ± 11.92 years) and sex. On follow-up examination after a median of 1000 days, the TTS group had a lower all-cause mortality rate than the STEMI group (7.69% versus 23.08%). This difference was statistically different between the two groups (log-rank test, p value = 0.03).

Conclusions: In our study, TTS and STEMI patients displayed a statistically significant difference in long-term survival. Specifically, the TTS group had a lower mortality rate than the STEMI group. This seems to suggest that TTS and STEMI are two different clinical entities with two different clinical outcomes.