Effects of sitagliptin on gastric emptying of, and the glycaemic and blood pressure responses to, a carbohydrate meal in type 2 diabetes

Diabetes Obes Metab. 2020 Jan;22(1):51-58. doi: 10.1111/dom.13864. Epub 2019 Sep 30.


Aims: To determine the effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, on gastric emptying (GE) of a high-carbohydrate meal and associated glycaemic and blood pressure (BP) responses in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with T2DM (nine men, five women; age 67.8 ± 1.5 years; body mass index 31.2 ± 0.9 kg/m2 ; T2DM duration: 4.2 ± 0.9 years; glycated haemoglobin: 46 ± 1.8 mmol/mol [6.4% ± 0.2%]), managed by diet and/or metformin, underwent concurrent measurements of GE, BP and plasma glucose for 240 minutes after ingestion of a radiolabelled mashed potato meal after receiving sitagliptin (100 mg) or placebo in randomized, double-blind, crossover fashion on 2 consecutive days.

Results: Sitagliptin reduced postprandial plasma glucose (P < .005) without affecting GE (P = .88). The magnitude of the glucose-lowering effect (change in incremental area under the curve0-240 min from placebo to sitagliptin) was related to GE (kcal/min) on placebo (r = 0.68, P = .008) There was a comparable fall in systolic BP (P = .80) following the meal, with no difference between the 2 days.

Conclusions: In T2DM, while sitagliptin has no effect on either GE or postprandial BP, its ability to lower postprandial glucose are dependent on the basal rate of GE.

Keywords: DPP-4 inhibition; blood pressure; glycaemia; postprandial hypotension; type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose*
  • Blood Pressure*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Gastric Emptying / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Postprandial Period
  • Sitagliptin Phosphate* / therapeutic use


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Sitagliptin Phosphate