Detection of early breast cancer beyond mammographic screening: a promising biomarker panel

Biomark Med. 2019 Sep;13(13):1107-1117. doi: 10.2217/bmm-2019-0085. Epub 2019 Aug 30.


Aim: We assessed the suitability of a biomarker panel to improve early detection and individual risk assessment in breast cancer (BC) patients. Materials & methods: PENK, pro-SP, hGH and CA15-3 of 204 BC patients and 68 healthy controls were measured. Results: PENK and human growth hormone concentrations were significantly lower and pro-SP values higher in BC patients compared with controls. C-index increased from 0.628 for CA15-3 alone to 0.754 when all three biomarkers were added to the model. Conclusion: This biomarker panel may improve early detection of BC and influence the assessment of breast imaging. It might be useful for a risk-adapted cancer surveillance or primary prevention program by a more precise determination of an individualized BC risk.

Keywords: CA15-3; biomarkers; breast cancer; early detection; enkephalin; human growth hormone; mammographic screening; substance-P.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Area Under Curve
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood*
  • Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Early Detection of Cancer
  • Enkephalins / blood
  • Female
  • Human Growth Hormone / blood
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Mammography
  • Middle Aged
  • Mucin-1 / blood
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Protein Precursors / blood
  • ROC Curve
  • Substance P / blood


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Enkephalins
  • MUC1 protein, human
  • Mucin-1
  • Protein Precursors
  • proenkephalin
  • Human Growth Hormone
  • Substance P