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A Temperature Plasmonic Sensor Based on a Side Opening Hollow Fiber Filled With High Refractive Index Sensing Medium

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A Temperature Plasmonic Sensor Based on a Side Opening Hollow Fiber Filled With High Refractive Index Sensing Medium

Lei Zhao et al. Sensors (Basel).

Abstract

A surface plasmon resonance temperature sensor based on a side opening hollow-core microstructured optical fiber is proposed in this paper. This design employs a gold nanowire to excite the plasmon mode, and can be easily filled with the sensing medium through the side opening of the fiber, which not only simplifies the fabrication of the sensor but can also use the high refractive index sensing medium. The coupling characteristics, sensing performance and fabrication tolerance of the sensor are analyzed by using the finite element method. The simulation results indicate that the maximum sensitivity is 3.21 nm/°C for the x-polarized core mode in the temperature range of 13.27-50.99 °C, and 4.98 nm/°C for the y-polarized core mode in the temperature range of 14.55-51.19 °C, when benzene is used as the sensing medium. The sensor also shows a good stability in the range of ±10% fabrication tolerance.

Keywords: fiber optics sensors; microstructured optical fibers; surface plasmon resonance; temperature sensors.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
(a) Schematic diagram of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on a side opening hollow fiber and (b) experimental setup diagram of the proposed SPR sensor for temperature sensing.
Figure 2
Figure 2
(a) Dispersion relations of the x-polarized core mode and surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) mode, losses as a function of wavelength for the x-polarized core mode, (b) dispersion relations of the y-polarized core mode and SPP mode, losses as a function of wavelength for the y-polarized core mode when the n is 1.47, and (c) electric field distributions of the relevant modes where the red arrows show the polarization direction of the electric field.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Losses as a function of wavelength for the (a) x-polarized and (b) y-polarized core modes at different n (temperatures).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Temperature sensitivities of the x-polarized and y-polarized core modes at different temperatures.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Schematic of the fiber hole filled with the gold nanowire.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Losses as a function of wavelength for the (a) x-polarized and (b) y-polarized core modes at n = 1.47, with varying nanowire positions (θ).
Figure 7
Figure 7
Losses as a function of wavelength for the (a) x-polarized and (b) y-polarized core modes at n = 1.47, with varying width of the slot (w).
Figure 8
Figure 8
(a) Dispersion relations of the x-polarized core mode and SPP mode, (b) dispersion relations of the y-polarized core mode and SPP mode, (c) losses as a function of wavelength for the x-polarized core mode and (d) losses as a function of wavelength for the y-polarized core mode at n = 1.47, with varying core diameter (dc).
Figure 9
Figure 9
(a) Dispersion relations of the x-polarized core mode and SPP mode, (b) dispersion relations of the y-polarized core mode and SPP mode, (c) losses as a function of wavelength for the x-polarized core mode and (d) losses as a function of wavelength for the y-polarized core mode at n = 1.47, with varying gold nanowire (dg).

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