Pituitary Apoplexy

Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2019 Oct;30(4):457-463. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2019.06.001. Epub 2019 Aug 7.


Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical condition with acute-onset headaches, vision loss, and/or pituitary dysfunction associated with a hemorrhagic or infarcted pituitary tumor or cyst. Treatment varies based on clinical presentation, although often urgent or emergent surgical resection is indicated. Conservative treatment strategies tend to be applied for more mild conditions of apoplexy. Overall outcomes may be similar in this less severe cohort. Acute-onset vision loss with apoplexy should be treated with urgent or emergent surgical evacuation of hematoma and resection of tumor when possible.

Keywords: Diplopia; Headache; Hypopituitarism; Pituitary adenomas; Pituitary apoplexy; Vision loss.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenoma / complications
  • Adenoma / diagnosis
  • Adenoma / surgery
  • Humans
  • Pituitary Apoplexy / complications
  • Pituitary Apoplexy / diagnosis*
  • Pituitary Apoplexy / surgery*
  • Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery