Effects of ceragenins and conventional antimicrobials on Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus mono and multispecies biofilms

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Nov;95(3):114863. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2019.06.014. Epub 2019 Jul 11.


It is known that synergy between Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus results in enhanced biofilm formation and increased resistance to antimicrobials. Ceragenins (CSAs) are derivatives of cholic acid designed to mimic the antimicrobial activities of endogenous antimicrobial peptides. In this study, various CSAs were tested on C. albicans and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus or methicillin-resistant S. aureus mono or multispecies biofilms at 2 different concentrations (16 and 64 μg/mL) and compared with conventional antimicrobials. CSA-8 was active agent both with mono and multispecies biofilms (P < 0.05). Among antifungals, amphotericin B and, among antibacterials, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were active agents against all studied microorganisms. This study suggests that CSAs, especially CSA-8, have useful antibiofilm effects against monomicrobial or fungal-bacterial multispecies biofilms.

Keywords: Biofilm; Candida albicans; Ceragenin; Multispecies biofilm; Staphylococcus aureus.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Biofilms / drug effects*
  • Biofilms / growth & development
  • Candida albicans / drug effects*
  • Candida albicans / growth & development*
  • Coculture Techniques
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Microbial Viability / drug effects
  • Molecular Structure
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / growth & development*
  • Steroids / chemistry
  • Steroids / pharmacology*


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Steroids
  • ceragenins