Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2019 Oct;28(4):587-599. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2019.06.002.


Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) arises from the epithelial cells of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts and occurs proximal to the segmental biliary ducts. Risk factors include chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, biliary inflammatory diseases, and hepatobiliary flukes, although in most cases, no known risk factor is identified. ICC is highly aggressive, with long-term survival only observed in patients with a complete R0 surgical resection. Technical and physiologic resectability should be considered when performing an operative plan. Nodal involvement is among the most important prognostic factors associated with survival and a porta hepatis lymphadenectomy should be performed at the time of resection. Adjuvant chemotherapy can provide a significant survival benefit for patients with more advanced or aggressive tumors. Systemic, locoregional, and targeted therapies exist for patients with unresectable or metastatic disease.

Keywords: Cholangiocarcionma; Hepatobiliary; Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology*
  • Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Liver Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Prognosis