Staging of Biliary and Primary Liver Tumors: Current Recommendations and Workup

Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2019 Oct;28(4):663-683. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2019.06.007.


Hepatobiliary malignancies are a diverse group of neoplasms involving the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. Although intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and gallbladder adenocarcinoma share many biological and anatomic features, they have distinct clinical presentations and natural histories that require individual consideration. Here, we discuss the incidence, outcomes, patient presentation, initial workup, pathologic diagnoses, staging classification, imaging and surgical staging, and determinants of resectability for each malignancy.

Keywords: Cancer; Carcinoma; Cholangiocarcinoma; Gallbladder; Hepatobiliary; Hepatocellular; Liver; Staging.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biliary Tract Neoplasms / classification*
  • Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Biliary Tract Neoplasms / surgery
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / classification*
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic / standards*
  • Prognosis