Prolyl hydroxylase domain oxygen sensors are dioxygenases that regulate the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which controls renal and hepatic erythropoietin production and coordinates erythropoiesis with iron metabolism. Small molecule inhibitors of prolyl hydroxylase domain dioxygenases (HIF-PHI [prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor]) stimulate the production of endogenous erythropoietin and improve iron metabolism resulting in efficacious anemia management in patients with CKD. Three oral HIF-PHIs-daprodustat, roxadustat, and vadadustat-have now advanced to global phase III clinical development culminating in the recent licensing of roxadustat for oral anemia therapy in China. Here, we survey current clinical experience with HIF-PHIs, discuss potential therapeutic advantages, and deliberate over safety concerns regarding long-term administration in patients with renal anemia.
Keywords: Anemia; Chronic kidney disease; Erythropoietin; Hypoxia-inducible factor; Prolyl hydroxylase domain.
Copyright © 2019 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.