Glucose Concentration Measurement in Human Blood Plasma Solutions with Microwave Sensors

Sensors (Basel). 2019 Aug 31;19(17):3779. doi: 10.3390/s19173779.


Three microwave sensors are used to track the glucose level of different human blood plasma solutions. In this paper, the sensors are evaluated as glucose trackers in a context close to real human blood. Different plasma solutions sets were prepared from a human blood sample at several added glucose concentrations up to 10 wt%, adding also ascorbic acid and lactic acid at different concentrations. The experimental results for the different sensors/solutions combinations are presented in this work. The sensors show good performance and linearity as glucose level retrievers, although the sensitivities change as the rest of components vary. Different sensor behaviors depending upon the concentrations of glucose and other components are identified and characterized. The results obtained in terms of sensitivity are coherent with previous works, highlighting the contribution of glucose to the dielectric losses of the solution. The results are also consistent with the frequency evolution of the electromagnetic signature of glucose found in the literature, and are helpful for selecting frequency bands for sensing purposes and envisioning future approaches to the challenging measurement in real biological contexts. Discussion of the implications of the results and guidelines for further research and development of more accurate sensors is offered.

Keywords: dielectric losses; glucose sensor; human blood plasma; microwave resonator; multi-component study; permittivity; quality factor.

MeSH terms

  • Biosensing Techniques / methods*
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Microwaves*


  • Blood Glucose