Multimodality Imaging of Prostate Cancer

J Nucl Med. 2019 Oct;60(10):1350-1358. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.119.228320. Epub 2019 Sep 3.


Prostate cancer is a very heterogeneous disease, and contemporary management is focused on identification and treatment of the prognostically adverse high-risk tumors while minimizing overtreatment of indolent, low-risk tumors. In recent years, imaging has gained increasing importance in the detection, staging, posttreatment assessment, and detection of recurrence of prostate cancer. Several imaging modalities including conventional and functional methods are used in different clinical scenarios with their very own advantages and limitations. This continuing medical education article provides an overview of available imaging modalities currently in use for prostate cancer followed by a more specific section on the value of these different imaging modalities in distinct clinical scenarios, ranging from initial diagnosis to advanced, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. In addition to established imaging indications, we will highlight some potential future applications of contemporary imaging modalities in prostate cancer.

Keywords: PET/MRI; PSMA; fluciclovine; multiparametric MRI; theranostics; whole-body MRI.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antigens, Surface / metabolism
  • Carboxylic Acids / chemistry
  • Choline / chemistry
  • Cyclobutanes / chemistry
  • Disease Progression
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / chemistry
  • Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multimodal Imaging / methods*
  • Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
  • Positron-Emission Tomography
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / diagnostic imaging*
  • Radionuclide Imaging
  • Theranostic Nanomedicine
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Whole Body Imaging


  • Antigens, Surface
  • Carboxylic Acids
  • Cyclobutanes
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • fluciclovine F-18
  • FOLH1 protein, human
  • Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II
  • Choline