Neurological emergencies are frequently catastrophic events in the course of haematological malignancies (HM) that, if not promptly recognized and treated, may lead to lethal outcomes or chronic sequelae. They may occur at any time during the disease course, but are more frequently observed following relapse. Practice guidelines are lacking in the management of most central nervous system (CNS) complications in HM. Herein we review the pathophysiology, presentation and treatment of elevated intracranial pressure, spinal cord compression, status epilepticus, neurovascular complications, CNS infection, leucostasis and hyperviscosity. Further, we discuss the expanding spectrum of neurological complications of old and novel treatments in HM.
Keywords: central nervous system; emergencies; haematological malignancies.
© 2019 British Society for Haematology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.