The metabolism of dietary polyphenols ellagitannins by the gut-microbiota allows the human stratification in urolithin metabotypes depending on the final urolithins produced. Metabotype-A only produces urolithin-A, metabotype-B yields urolithin-B and isourolithin-A in addition to urolithin-A, and metabotype 0 does not produce urolithins. Metabotype-A has been suggested to be 'protective', and metabotype-B dysbiotic-prone to cardiometabolic impairments. We analyzed the gut-microbiome of 40 healthy women and determined their metabotypes and enterotypes, and their associations with anthropometric and gut-microbial changes after 3 weeks, 4, 6, and 12 months postpartum. Metabotype-A was predominant in mothers who lost weight (≥2 kg) (75%) versus metabotype-B (54%). After delivery, the microbiota of metabotype-A mothers changed, unlike metabotype-B, which barely changed over 1 year. The metabotype-A discriminating bacteria correlated to the decrease of the women's waist while some metabotype-B bacteria were inversely associated with a reduction of body mass index (BMI), waist, and waist-to-hip ratio. Metabotype-B was associated with a more robust and less modulating microbial and anthropometric profiles versus metabotype-A, in which these profiles were normalized through the 1-year follow-up postpartum. Consequently, urolithin metabotypes assessment could be a tool to anticipate the predisposition of women to normalize their anthropometric values and gut-microbiota, significantly altered during pregnancy and after childbirth.
Keywords: body mass index; ellagitannins; gut dysbiosis; gut microbiome; lactation; polyphenols; postpartum.