Oxidative stress is a consequence of the use of oxygen in aerobic respiration by living organisms and is denoted as a persistent condition of an imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability of the endogenous antioxidant system (AOS) to detoxify them. The oxidative stress theory has been confirmed in many animal studies, which demonstrated that the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and biomolecular stability and integrity is crucial for cellular longevity and successful aging. Mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired protein homeostasis (proteostasis) network, alteration in the activities of transcription factors such as Nrf2 and NF-κB, and disturbances in the protein quality control machinery that includes molecular chaperones, ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and autophagy/lysosome pathway have been observed during aging and age-related chronic diseases. The accumulation of ROS under oxidative stress conditions results in the induction of lipid peroxidation and glycoxidation reactions, which leads to the elevated endogenous production of reactive aldehydes and their derivatives such as glyoxal, methylglyoxal (MG), malonic dialdehyde (MDA), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) giving rise to advanced lipoxidation and glycation end products (ALEs and AGEs, respectively). Both ALEs and AGEs play key roles in cellular response to oxidative stress stimuli through the regulation of a variety of cell signaling pathways. However, elevated ALE and AGE production leads to protein cross-linking and aggregation resulting in an alteration in cell signaling and functioning which causes cell damage and death. This is implicated in aging and various age-related chronic pathologies such as inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, atherosclerosis, and vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. In the present review, we discuss experimental data evidencing the impairment in cellular functions caused by AGE/ALE accumulation under oxidative stress conditions. We focused on the implications of ALEs/AGEs in aging and age-related diseases to demonstrate that the identification of cellular dysfunctions involved in disease initiation and progression can serve as a basis for the discovery of relevant therapeutic agents.