Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of computed tomography (CT) attenuation and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to predict peritoneal recurrence-free survival (RFS) as well as RFS and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC).
Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 117 patients with AGC who underwent staging FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and subsequent curative surgical resection. CT attenuation and FDG uptake (SUV) of VAT and maximum FDG uptake of primary tumor (SUVmaxT) were measured from PET/CT images. The relationship of VAT attenuation and SUV with clinico-histopathologic factors and survival was assessed.
Results: There was a significant positive correlation between VAT attenuation and SUV (p < 0.001, r = 0.799). In correlation analyses, both VAT attenuation and SUV showed significant positive correlations with T stage, TNM stage, tumor size, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (p < 0.05), and patients who experienced recurrence during the first 3-year after surgery had significantly higher VAT attenuation and SUV than those who had no recurrence (p < 0.05). Patients with high VAT attenuation and SUV showed significantly worse RFS, peritoneal RFS, and OS than those with low values (p < 0.05). On multivariate survival analysis, VAT attenuation was significantly associated with peritoneal RFS and OS and VAT SUV was significantly associated with OS (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: CT attenuation and FDG uptake of VAT on staging FDG PET/CT were correlated with tumor characteristics and were significant predictive factors for peritoneal RFS and OS in patients with AGC.
Keywords: Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; Gastric cancer; Positron emission tomography; Prognosis; Visceral adipose tissue.