Women living with HIV (WLWH) are over-represented in corrections in Canada, yet little is known about women's experiences post-release. We used CHIWOS cross-sectional data from WLWH to estimate associations between social determinants of health and HIV-related care outcomes among WLWH with recent (within past year) or ever (before past year) incarceration experience. Lifetime incarceration prevalence was 36.9% (6.5% recent; 30.4% ever), with significant differences by province of residence (British Columbia: 10% recent; 52% ever; Ontario: 5%; 24%; Quebec: 6%; 22%; p < 0.001). In adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses, compared with never incarcerated, recent incarceration was associated with Indigenous ancestry, lower annual income (< $20,000 CAD), unstable housing, current sex work, injection drug use (IDU), and sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, while ever incarceration was associated with current sex work, IDU, and experiencing adulthood violence. Our findings have implications regarding supports needed by WLWH in the post-release period, including ART adherence and achieving health and social goals.
Keywords: Adherence; CHIWOS; HIV; Incarceration; Post-incarceration; Social determinants of health; Women.