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Review
, 49 (4), 213-219

Retinal Prostheses and Artificial Vision

Affiliations
Review

Retinal Prostheses and Artificial Vision

Emin Özmert et al. Turk J Ophthalmol.

Abstract

In outer retinal degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, choroideremia, and geographic atrophy, 30% of the ganglion cell layer in the macula remains intact. With subretinal and epiretinal prostheses, these inner retinal cells are stimulated with controlled electrical current by either a microphotodiode placed in the subretinal area or a microelectrode array tacked to the epiretinal region. As the patient learns to interpret the resulting phosphene patterns created in the brain through special rehabilitation exercises, their orientation, mobility, and quality of life increase. Implants that stimulate the lateral geniculate nucleus or visual cortex are currently being studied for diseases in which the ganglion cells and optic nerve are completely destroyed.

Keywords: Artificial vision; bionic eye; visual prosthesis; Argus II; retinal prosthesis; outer retinal degeneration; retinitis pigmentosa; phosphene.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
The removable external part of the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system
Figure 2
Figure 2
The permanent ocular implant part of the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis: electronics case and receiving coil on a silicone band, electronic cable, and microelectrode array
Figure 3
Figure 3
Argus II epiretinal prosthesis with a 60-electrode array positioned on the macula and attached to the sclera with the retinal tack piercing the choroid (surgery performed by E.Ö.)
Figure 4
Figure 4
Cross-sectional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography image of the microelectrode array placed on the inner surface of the macula (surgery performed by E.Ö.)
Figure 5
Figure 5
Endoscopic viewing of the retroiridal region during the implantation surgery to confirm the scleral incision site
Figure 6
Figure 6
An end-stage retinitis pigmentosa patient able to perceive a basketball hoop 6 months after Argus II retinal prosthesis implantation; the black box at his waist is the Video Processing Unit (performed by surgeon E.Ö.)
Figure 7
Figure 7
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy: a noninvasive optical method that provides information about cortical activity by measuring relative changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin in the brain cortex upon stimulation of the visual cortex
Figure 8
Figure 8
(A) There is ambiguous activity detected by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in the occipital cortex when the Argus II system is nonoperational (Argus OFF). (B) Significant activity is detected by fNIRS in the occipital cortex when the Argus II system is operational (Argus ON). (C) Wave patterns recorded from the occipital cortex; blue wave: Argus ON, red wave: Argus OFF

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