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Review
. 2019 Oct;29(10):805-815.
doi: 10.1080/13543776.2019.1665023. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Adrenergic Agonists and Antagonists as Antiglaucoma Agents: A Literature and Patent Review (2013-2019)

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Review

Adrenergic Agonists and Antagonists as Antiglaucoma Agents: A Literature and Patent Review (2013-2019)

Alessio Nocentini et al. Expert Opin Ther Pat. .

Abstract

Introduction: Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease of the eye characterized by selective retinal ganglion cell loss that provokes progressive defects in the visual field. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important contributor for the progression of glaucoma. The current therapeutic arsenal for reducing IOP includes prostaglandin analogs, β-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, α-adrenergic agonist, miotics, rho-kinase inhibitors and combinations thereof, generally administered as eye drops. Areas covered: This manuscript reviews the state of art on adrenergic modulators for treating glaucoma. Both monotherapy and fixed-drugs combinations including α2-adrenergic agonists and β-blockers are discussed as well as drug delivery systems where these classes of drugs are used. The review then covers the patent literature involving adrenoceptors modulators over the period 2013-2019. Expert opinion: While the scientific community is moving forward novel targets and related modulators for treating glaucoma and ocular hypertension, adrenergic modulators held a prominent position in the therapy of glaucoma and related disorders. Indeed, though not embodying anymore the first-choice monotherapy, they are widely marketed worldwide ordinarily in combination with other drugs, are subjects of many studies for identifying new drug compositions and have been assessed as active ingredients in several innovative ocular drug delivery systems.

Keywords: Glaucoma; combination; drug delivery system; modulator; multi-target; ocular hypertension; α-adrenoceptor; β-adrenoceptor.

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