Intramuscular fast-flow vascular anomaly contains somatic MAP2K1 and KRAS mutations

Angiogenesis. 2019 Nov;22(4):547-552. doi: 10.1007/s10456-019-09678-w. Epub 2019 Sep 5.


Background: The term "intramuscular hemangioma capillary type" (IHCT) refers to a fast-flow vascular lesion that is classified as a tumor, although its phenotype overlaps with arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The purpose of this study was to identify somatic mutations in IHCT.

Methods: Affected tissue specimens were obtained during a clinically indicated procedure. The diagnosis of IHCT was based on history, physical examination, imaging and histopathology. Because somatic mutations in cancer-associated genes can cause vascular malformations, we sequenced exons from 446 cancer-related genes in DNA from 7 IHCT specimens. We then performed mutation-specific droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to independently test for the presence of a somatic mutation found by sequencing and to screen one additional IHCT sample.

Results: We detected somatic mutations in 6 of 8 IHCT specimens. Four specimens had a mutation in MAP2K1 (p.Q58_E62del, p.P105_I107delinsL, p.Q56P) and 2 specimens had mutations in KRAS (p.K5E and p.G12D, p.G12D and p.Q22R). Mutant allele frequencies detected by sequencing and confirmed by ddPCR ranged from 2 to 15%.

Conclusions: IHCT lesions are phenotypically similar to AVMs and contain the same somatic MAP2K1 or KRAS mutations, suggesting that IHCT is on the AVM spectrum. We propose calling this lesion "intramuscular fast-flow vascular anomaly."

Keywords: Arteriovenous malformation; Capillary type; Hemangioma; Intramuscular; KRAS; MAP2K1; Malformation; Vascular.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arteriovenous Malformations / enzymology
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / genetics
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / pathology
  • Hemangioma / enzymology
  • Hemangioma / genetics*
  • Hemangioma / pathology
  • Humans
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 1 / genetics*
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 1 / metabolism
  • Mutation*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / genetics*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / metabolism


  • KRAS protein, human
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 1
  • MAP2K1 protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)