Objectives: To evaluate if the use of a photographic handbook (PH) can be a useful tool to improve the detection of disorders during cystoscopy training, as several hands-on tools have been proposed to improve technical skills but very few aim to improve specificity and sensitivity. Subjects and methods: Eight junior residents (JRs) were divided into two groups: Group A, comprised four JRs with previous limited experience of performing cystoscopies; and Group B, including four inexperienced JRs who were asked to study a specific PH before performing cystoscopies. The findings of the two groups were compared using the chi-squared test. Results: A total of 401 consecutive cystoscopies, of which 214 (53.4%) were performed by Group A and 187 (46.6%) by Group B, were considered. Group B showed superior ability in detecting uncommon findings (i.e., carcinoma in situ, bullous oedema, interstitial cystitis, etc.) with 24/46 (52.2%) detected vs eight of 32 (25%) in Group A (P = 0.016). Conclusions: The PH was a useful tool for improving identification of pathological conditions, which could be used to enhance hands-on simulator and practical tutored training. Abbreviations: CIS: carcinoma in situ; JR: junior resident; PH: photographic handbook; VR: virtual reality Classification: Stones/Endourology.
Keywords: Cystoscopy; endourology; photographic handbook; surgical training; training.