Previous studies in the Mexican adult population have suggested a relationship between low levels of serum concentrations of serum vitamin D with impaired glucose tolerance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, regardless of the presence of obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and the factors linked to insulin resistance. A total of 533 children and adolescents from the "Reference Values of Body Composition in the Pediatric Population of Mexico City" study are assessed. Body composition, dietary, and lifestyle data are obtained. Serum vitamin D, insulin, and glucose are also measured. Associations are tested using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Approximately 90% of children and adolescents in this study have sub-optimal vitamin D levels (<30 ng/mL). An inverse relationship between insulin resistance and serum vitamin D is observed (OR (odds ratios) = 2.9; 95% CI (95% confidence intervals): 1.1, 7.2; p-trend 0.03). Low serum vitamin D levels are associated with insulin resistance in the pediatric population. The present study provides additional evidence for the role of vitamin D in insulin resistance. Our findings suggest the supplementation of vitamin D may be helpful in preventing insulin resistance and subsequent diabetes.
Keywords: adolescents; children; diabetes; insulin resistance; vitamin D.