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Comparative Study
. 2019 Sep 5;16(18):3265.
doi: 10.3390/ijerph16183265.

Comparative Analysis of Long-Term Variation Characteristics of SO 2, NO 2, and O 3 in the Ecological and Economic Zones of the Western Sichuan Plateau, Southwest China

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Free PMC article
Comparative Study

Comparative Analysis of Long-Term Variation Characteristics of SO 2, NO 2, and O 3 in the Ecological and Economic Zones of the Western Sichuan Plateau, Southwest China

Pengguo Zhao et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) are important atmospheric pollutants that affect air quality. The long-term variations of SO2 and NO2 in 2008-2018 and O3 in 2015-2018 in the relatively less populated ecological and economic zones of Western Sichuan Plateau, Southwest China were analyzed. In 2008-2018, the variations in SO2 and NO2 in the ecological zone were not significant, but Ganzi showed a slight upward trend. SO2 decreased significantly in the economic zone, especially in Panzhihua, where NO2 changes were not obvious. From 2015 to 2018, the concentration of O3 in the ecological zone increased significantly, while the economic zone showed a downward trend. The rising trend of the concentration ratio of SO2 to NO2 in the ecological zone and the declining trend in the economic zone indicate that the energy consumption structure of these two zones is quite different. The lower correlation coefficients between NO2 and O3 in the Western Sichuan Plateau imply that the variations of O3 are mainly affected by the regional background. The effects of meteorological factors on SO2, NO2, and O3 were more obvious in the economic zone where there are high anthropometric emissions.

Keywords: Western Sichuan Plateau; long-term variation; nitrogen dioxide; ozone; sulfur dioxide.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Geographical position of ecological zone (blue outline) and economic zone (red outline) of Western Sichuan Plateau, the locations of cities are marked by black dots.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Variations of monthly mean mass concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 in (a) Aba, (b) Ganzi, (c) Liangshan, and (d) Panzhihua from 2008 to 2018.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Variations of annual mean mass concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 in (a) Aba, (b) Ganzi, (c) Liangshan, and (d) Panzhihua from 2008 to 2018.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Annual variations of three air pollutants in different seasons: (a) SO2, (b) NO2, and (c) O3 in Aba; (d) SO2, (e) NO2, and (f) O3 in Ganzi; (g) SO2, (h) NO2, and (i) O3 in Liangshan; (j) SO2, (k) NO2, and (l) O3 in Panzhihua.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Variations of concentration ratio of SO2 to NO2 in Aba, Ganzi, Liangshan, and Panzhihua from 2008 to 2018.
Figure 6
Figure 6
(a) Energy consumption per unit industrial added value and (b) highway passenger and freight turnover in Aba, Ganzi, Liangshan, and Panzhihua in 2008–2016.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Relationships between SO2, NO2, O3 and routine meteorological parameters (mean monthly average temperature, maximum and minimum monthly average temperature, mean relative humidity, monthly total precipitation, monthly sunshine duration, mean wind speed, and maximum wind speed) in Aba of the ecological zone of Western Sichuan Plateau.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Relationships between SO2, NO2, O3, and routine meteorological parameters (mean monthly average temperature, maximum and minimum monthly average temperature, mean relative humidity, monthly total precipitation, monthly sunshine duration, mean wind speed, and maximum wind speed) in Panzhihua of the economic zone of Western Sichuan Plateau.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Multi-year mean mass concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 in Aba, Ganzi, Liangshan, and Panzhihua.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Seasonal mean mass concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 in (a) Aba, (b) Ganzi, (c) Liangshan, and (d) Panzhihua.
Figure 11
Figure 11
Monthly mean mass concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 in (a) Aba, (b) Ganzi, (c) Liangshan, and (d) Panzhihua.
Figure 12
Figure 12
Correlation between SO2 and NO2 in the (a) ecological zone and (b) economic zone in 2015–2018.
Figure 13
Figure 13
Correlation between NO2 and O3 in the (a) ecological zone and (b) economic zone in 2015–2018.

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