Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a global threat to wheat production. Aegilops tauschii, one of the wheat progenitors, carries the YrAS2388 locus for resistance to Pst on chromosome 4DS. We reveal that YrAS2388 encodes a typical nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR). The Pst-resistant allele YrAS2388R has duplicated 3' untranslated regions and is characterized by alternative splicing in the nucleotide-binding domain. Mutation of the YrAS2388R allele disrupts its resistance to Pst in synthetic hexaploid wheat; transgenic plants with YrAS2388R show resistance to eleven Pst races in common wheat and one race of P. striiformis f. sp. hordei in barley. The YrAS2388R allele occurs only in Ae. tauschii and the Ae. tauschii-derived synthetic wheat; it is absent in 100% (n = 461) of common wheat lines tested. The cloning of YrAS2388R will facilitate breeding for stripe rust resistance in wheat and other Triticeae species.