Background: Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) is a rare disease caused by CDC73 germline mutations, with familial primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), ossifying jaw tumors, genito-urinary neoplasms. The present study was aimed at determining the long-term postoperative outcome of parathyroidectomy in HPT-JT.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of a single-center series of 20 patients from five unrelated HPT-JT families undergoing parathyroid surgery was performed.
Results: Pathology confirmed a single-gland involvement in 95% of cases at onset. Parathyroid carcinoma occurred in three patients undergoing en-bloc parathyroidectomy and thyroid lobectomy: parathyroid benign lesions in 17 patients undergoing subtotal parathyroidectomy for evident multiglandular involvement (n = 1) or selective parathyroidectomy for single-gland involvement (n = 16), during bilateral (n = 13) or targeted unilateral neck exploration (n = 7). At a median overall follow-up of 16 years (range 2.5-42), patients with parathyroid carcinoma had a persistent/recurrent disease in 66.6%; patients with benign lesions had recurrent pHPT in 23.5% after a prolonged disease-free period; recurrent benign pHPT occurred slightly more often in cases of discordant preoperative localization (60% vs 9%; p = 0.06).
Conclusion: pHPT in HPT-JT is generally characterized by a benign and single-gland involvement, with a relatively increased risk of malignancy (15%). Parathyroid carcinoma needs extensive surgery because of high risk of permanent/recurrent disease (66.6%). In benign involvement, targeted unilateral exploration with selective parathyroidectomy may be effective in cases of concordant single-gland localization at preoperative localization imaging techniques. Bilateral neck exploration with subtotal parathyroidectomy might be preferred in cases of negative or discordant preoperative localization, because of the increased risk of multiglandular involvement and long-term recurrences (23.5%).