International variation in the management of mineral bone disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease: Results from CKDopps

Bone. 2019 Dec;129:115058. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2019.115058. Epub 2019 Sep 4.


Background and objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is commonly associated with mineral and bone metabolism disorders, but these are less frequently studied in non-dialysis CKD patients than in dialysis patients. We examined and described international variation in mineral and bone disease (MBD) markers and their treatment and target levels in Stage 3-5 CKD patients.

Design, setting, participants, and measurements: Prospective cohort study of 7658 adult patients with eGFR <60mL/min/1.73m2, excluding dialysis or transplant patients, participating in the Chronic Kidney Disease Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (CKDopps) in Brazil, France, Germany, and the US. CKD-MBD laboratory markers included serum levels of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D). MBD treatment data included phosphate binders and vitamin D (nutritional and active). Nephrologist survey data were collected on target MBD marker levels.

Results: Over two-thirds of the patients had MBD markers measured at time intervals in line with practice guidelines. P and iPTH increased and Ca decreased gradually from eGFR 60-20mL/min/1.73m2 and more sharply for eGFR<20. 25-D showed no relation to eGFR. Nephrologist survey data indicated marked variation in upper target P and iPTH levels. Among patients with P>5.5mg/dL, phosphate binder use was 14% to 43% across the four countries. Among patients with PTH >300pg/mL, use of active (calcitriol and related analogs) vitamin D was 12%-51%, and use of any (active or nutritional) vitamin D was 60%-87%.

Conclusions: Although monitoring of CKD-MBD laboratory markers by nephrologists in CKDopps countries is consistent with guidelines, target levels vary notably and prescription of medications to treat abnormalities in these laboratory markers is generally low in these cross-sectional analyses. While there are opportunities to increase treatment of hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and vitamin D deficiency in advanced CKD, the effect on longer-term complications of these conditions requires study.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; Mineral bone disease; Phosphate.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder / blood
  • Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder / pathology*
  • Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Internationality*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nephrologists
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians'
  • Probability
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Biomarkers