Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative treatment for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN). However, post-HSCT relapse remains a major cause of treatment failure. Here we assessed the efficacy of a new conditioning regimen comprising decitabine (Dec), busulfan (Bu), cyclophosphamide (Cy), fludarabine (Flu), and cytarabine (Ara-c) for allo-HSCT in patients with MDS and MDS/MPN. A total of 48 patients were enrolled, including 44 with MDS and 4 with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Patients received Dec 20 mg/m2/day on days -9 to -5, combined with a Bu/Cy/Flu/Ara-c-modified preparative regimen. At a median follow-up of 522 days (range, 15 to 1313 days), the overall survival (OS) was 86%, relapse incidence was 12%, and nonrelapse mortality was 12%. The incidence of severe acute (grade III-IV) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 23% and that of chronic GVHD was 15%. At 2 years, OS was 74% and 86%, respectively for high-risk and very-high-risk patients with MDS. Survival was promising in patients with poor-risk gene mutations, such as TP53 and ASXL1 (88%), and in those with ≥3 gene mutations (79%). Results of immunomonitoring studies revealed that proper natural killer cells made essential contributions to these favorable clinical outcomes. Overall, this new regimen was associated with a low relapse rate, low incidence and severity of GVHD, and satisfactory survival in allo-HSCT recipients with MDS and MDS/MPN.
Keywords: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Decitabine; Myeloablative conditioning regimen; Myelodysplastic syndromes; Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms.
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