Enhanced Recovery Deviation and Failure After Pancreaticoduodenectomy: Causative Factors and Impact

J Surg Res. 2020 Jan;245:569-576. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2019.07.055. Epub 2019 Sep 5.


Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is popular and safe. This study aimed to describe the incidence, causative factors, and clinical impact of deviation from and failure of an ERAS protocol.

Materials and methods: A prospective cohort analysis of elective PD patients managed according to an ERAS protocol between October 2015 and June 2018 was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified variables associated with protocol deviation and failure. The relationship between protocol deviation and failure was also explored.

Results: A total of 97 patients were identified comprising of 46 females and 51 males. The median age was 68 y (range 17-85). Twenty-one patients (21.6%) suffered serious complications, whereas two (2.1%) died perioperatively. The median length of stay (LoS) was 14 d (6-36). In total, 73 (75.3%) patients deviated, whereas 39 (40.2%) failed the protocol. On univariate analysis, protocol deviation was associated with male gender, surgery time ≥270 min, and prolonged LoS. On multivariate analysis only prolonged LoS remained significant. Only serious complications were associated with protocol failure on multivariate analysis. Protocol deviation was not associated with significant complications nor ERAS protocol failure.

Conclusions: ERAS protocol deviation does not alter the course of those destined to protocol failure. Greater understanding into the causative factors of either protocol deviation or failure may be the only way to personalize care and realize the maximal benefit of ERAS in this specific group of patients.

Keywords: ERAS; Enhanced recovery; Pancreaticoduodenectomy; Whipple.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Elective Surgical Procedures / adverse effects*
  • Enhanced Recovery After Surgery / standards*
  • Female
  • Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Israel / epidemiology
  • Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pancreaticoduodenectomy / adverse effects*
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology*
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Postoperative Complications / prevention & control
  • Prospective Studies
  • Treatment Failure
  • Young Adult