Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent metabolic complications of pregnancy. Previous studies have reported that using either probiotic yogurt or a probiotic supplement reduces the incidence of gestational diabetes. However, the results were inconsistent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between gestational diabetes mellitus and probiotic yogurt intake during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy in Chinese women.
Methods: This was a case-control study involving 123 cases with gestational diabetes mellitus and 126 controls matched for age and pre-pregnancy body mass index. Each participant was interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic characteristics, diet and exercise habits, as well as probiotic yogurt consumption (containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium) during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy. An unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data.
Results: Mothers in both groups had similar socio-demographic backgrounds. Probiotic yogurt intake during pregnancy was significantly higher in normal pregnant women than that in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio: 0.292, 95% confidence interval: 0.148 - 0.577, P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in probiotic yogurt consumption before pregnancy between cases and controls.
Conclusion: Probiotic yogurt intake before pregnancy was not associated with gestational diabetes mellitus, but probiotic yogurt consumption during pregnancy was effective in reducing the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese women. The findings from the present study may have implications for the future care of pregnant Chinese women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: Case-control study; Chinese; Gestational diabetes mellitus; Probiotic yogurt.