Evening Primrose ( Oenothera biennis) Oil in Management of Female Ailments

J Menopausal Med. 2019 Aug;25(2):74-82. doi: 10.6118/jmm.18190. Epub 2019 Aug 5.


Oenothera biennis with the common name of "evening primrose" is containing a valuable fixed oil with commercial name of EPO. Evening primrose oil has two types of omega-6-fatty acid including linoleic acid (60%-80%) and γ-linoleic acid (8%-14%). Essential fatty acids are considered as essential compounds for body health, especially among women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of evening primrose oil in the management of women ailments. The document was prepared by investigation in scientific articles of electronic resources (Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Wiley, Scopus, and Springer) by keywords of evening primrose oil and women. The results of our investigations showed that evening primrose oil has been the subject of several clinical studies, including premenstrual syndrome (PMS), hot flash, mastalgia, fibroadenomas, gestational diabetes, cervical ripening, and dilation. The major clinical studies are focused on mastalgia, followed by PMS. The results of studies confirmed the evening primrose oil's efficacy in women health, but the immediate response should not be expected from it, therefore, it should be regularly used up to 4 or 6 months.

Keywords: Evening primrose oil; Mastodynia; Premenstrual syndrome.

Publication types

  • Review