Nanocrystalline Zn 2+ and SO 42- binary doped fluorohydroxyapatite: A novel biomaterial with enhanced osteoconductive and osteoinconductive properties

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2019 Nov;104:109884. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.109884. Epub 2019 Jun 12.


In this study, we have successfully doped hydroxyapatite (HA) with zinc (Zn2+), sulphate (SO42-) and fluoride (F-) ions to develop a new composition of bioceramic, Ca10-x Znx(PO4)6-y(SO4)y(OH)2-z-yFz(SO4)y, (x = 0, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0, y = 0, 0.5 and z = 0,1.0 mol), using wet precipitation method. The obtained materials were analysed using XRD, FTIR, FESEM, and XPS techniques to investigate the phase purity, particle morphology and elemental composition, respectively. A model anticancer drug (Doxorubicin, DOX) was loaded onto the surface of the Zn/SO4-FHA materials. About 100% loading of DOX with a controlled release profile was obtained. Degradation of materials in Simulated body fluid (SBF) was greatly improved with the incorporation of Zn2+/SO42- ions in comparison to HA/FHA, which makes it highly bioactive materials. In vitro cell viability and adhesion of Human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cell were investigated. Cell viability has demonstrated that the hFOB cells proliferated at a high rate on Zn/SO4-FHA materials, confirming the in vitro biocompatibility of the materials. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and intracellular calcium deposition of hFOB cells seeded on 1ZnSO4-FHA disc surface was statistically higher than observed on pure HA and FHA discs, indicating that hFOB cells differentiated into mature osteoblasts on 1Zn/SO4-FHA disc surfaces. Taken together, our results suggest that HA substituted by (Zn2+, 0.2 mol), (SO42-, 0.5 mol) and (F-, 1 mol) (1Zn/SO4-FHA) material was a promising material for hard tissue scaffolds.

Keywords: Cell proliferation; Drug delivery; In vitro bioactivity; Osteogenic differentiation; Structural characterization; Substituted hydroxyapatite.

MeSH terms

  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry*
  • Biocompatible Materials / pharmacology
  • Body Fluids / chemistry
  • Bone Regeneration / drug effects*
  • Cell Adhesion / drug effects
  • Cell Differentiation / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Durapatite / chemistry
  • Fluorides / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Hydroxyapatites / chemistry*
  • Hydroxyapatites / pharmacology*
  • Materials Testing / methods
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Osteoblasts / drug effects
  • Osteogenesis / drug effects
  • Sulfates / chemistry*
  • Zinc / chemistry*


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Hydroxyapatites
  • Sulfates
  • fluorohydroxyapatite
  • Durapatite
  • Zinc
  • Fluorides