Comparison of the impact of preservation methods on amniotic membrane properties for tissue engineering applications

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2019 Nov;104:109903. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.109903. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Abstract

Human amniotic membrane (hAM) is considered as an attractive biological scaffold for tissue engineering. For this application, hAM has been mainly processed using cryopreservation, lyophilization and/or decellularization. However, no study has formally compared the influence of these treatments on hAM properties. The aim of this study was to develop a new decellularization-preservation process of hAM, and to compare it with other conventional treatments (fresh, cryopreserved and lyophilized). The hAM was decellularized (D-hAM) using an enzymatic method followed by a detergent decellularization method, and was then lyophilized and gamma-sterilized. Decellularization was assessed using DNA staining and quantification. D-hAM was compared to fresh (F-hAM), cryopreserved (C-hAM) and lyophilized/gamma-sterilized (L-hAM) hAM. Their cytotoxicity on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and their biocompatibility in a rat subcutaneous model were also evaluated. The protocol was effective as judged by the absence of nuclei staining and the residual DNA lower than 50 ng/mg. Histological staining showed a disruption of the D-hAM architecture, and its thickness was 84% lower than fresh hAM (p < 0.001). Despite this, the labeling of type IV and type V collagen, elastin and laminin were preserved on D-hAM. Maximal force before rupture of D-hAM was 92% higher than C-hAM and L-hAM (p < 0.01), and D-hAM was 37% more stretchable than F-hAM (p < 0.05). None of the four hAM were cytotoxic, and D-hAM was the most suitable scaffold for hBMSCs proliferation. Finally, D-hAM was well integrated in vivo. In conclusion, this new hAM decellularization process appears promising for tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: Acellular scaffold; Amniotic membrane; Cryopreservation; Freeze-drying; Processed amnion; Rat; in vivo biocompatibility.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Amnion / drug effects
  • Amnion / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials / pharmacology
  • Cell Death / drug effects
  • Cryopreservation*
  • DNA / metabolism
  • Extracellular Matrix / drug effects
  • Extracellular Matrix / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Implants, Experimental
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Subcutaneous Tissue / drug effects
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*

Substances

  • Biocompatible Materials
  • DNA