Background: Whole grain wheat (WGW) consumption is associated with health benefits in observational studies. However, WGW randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies show mixed effects.
Objectives: The health impact of WGW consumption was investigated by quantification of the body's resilience, which was defined as the "ability to adapt to a standardized challenge."
Methods: A double-blind RCT was performed with overweight and obese (BMI: 25-35 kg/m2) men (n = 19) and postmenopausal women (n = 31) aged 45-70 y, with mildly elevated plasma total cholesterol (>5 mmol/L), who were randomly assigned to either 12-wk WGW (98 g/d) or refined wheat (RW). Before and after the intervention a standardized mixed-meal challenge was performed. Plasma samples were taken after overnight fasting and postprandially (30, 60, 120, and 240 min). Thirty-one biomarkers were quantified focusing on metabolism, liver, cardiovascular health, and inflammation. Linear mixed-models evaluated fasting compared with postprandial intervention effects. Health space models were used to evaluate intervention effects as composite markers representing resilience of inflammation, liver, and metabolism.
Results: Postprandial biomarker changes related to liver showed decreased alanine aminotransferase by WGW (P = 0.03) and increased β-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.001) response in RW. Postprandial changes related to inflammation showed increased C-reactive protein (P = 0.001), IL-6 (P = 0.02), IL-8 (P = 0.007), and decreased IL-1B (P = 0.0002) in RW and decreased C-reactive protein (P < 0.0001), serum amyloid A (P < 0.0001), IL-8 (P = 0.02), and IL-10 (P < 0.0001) in WGW. Health space visualization demonstrated diminished inflammatory (P < 0.01) and liver resilience (P < 0.01) by RW, whereas liver resilience was rejuvenated by WGW (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Twelve-week 98 g/d WGW consumption can promote liver and inflammatory resilience in overweight and obese subjects with mildly elevated plasma cholesterol. The health space approach appeared appropriate to evaluate intervention effects as composite markers. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02385149.
Keywords: (compromised) healthy subjects; challenge test; composite biomarkers; inflammation; liver; metabolic health; phenotypic flexibility; resilience; whole grain wheat.
Copyright © American Society for Nutrition 2019.
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